Land access and use are common drivers of (violent) conflict, sources of GHG emissions and one of the most important natural resources in post-war contexts. Some climate mitigation and peacebuilding strategies have targeted the land use sector and delivered sustainable land-use systems (SLUS) to affected communities as an entry point to integrate land based-climate action and peacebuilding objectives. SLUS are practices within agricultural and livestock production systems that meet sustainability principles (environmental, social and economic). Nevertheless, there is a lack of programming and evaluation frameworks, including explicit theories of change and indicators that integrate these two objectives. This study aims to fill this gap by developing an impact pathway analysis and its operationalization through a theory of change and indicators to follow the precise mechanisms that specific SLUS activities use to affect different GHG emissions and conflict drivers. To do so, we used a mixed-methods approach, first, two in-person and two virtual workshops, and semi-structured interviews to conduct a participatory context analysis for understanding the drivers of conflict targeted by the SLUS’s implementations. Second, through a household survey (n=929), we illustrated the impact pathways of SLUS in peacebuilding at the household level. Results show that SLUS such as agroforestry contribute to climate change mitigation and impact co-benefits in three core factors, (i) socio-economic inclusion by creating jobs and elevating sustainable livelihoods, (ii) dialogue and conflict transformation by allowing negotiations and participatory design of farms that include conservation agreements, (iii) natural resource management, governance and institutions by preventing conflicts around natural resources such as land and water and promoting social cohesion and cooperation.
Climate change, REDD+ co-benefits, Environmental Peacebuilding Indicators, Monitoring and Evaluation,